Syllabus: Survey of Ryukyu History

Survey of Ryukyu History

Syllabus

8-Week Online Course

By Robert Hernandez Kajiwara

Done in partial fulfillment of the Ph.D. in History program at Liberty University

Description: An undergraduate-level course providing a broad overview of Ryukyu history. The course will start with Ryukyu prehistory and cover all the way up to the modern day. The course will examine Ryukyu relations with neighboring regions, including China, Korea, Japan, Malay, the Philippines, and Southeast Asia. The course will also provide students with an introduction to fundamental elements and concepts in Ryukyu culture. The curriculum will end with modern Ryukyu history, including Ryukyu relations with both Japan and the United States.

Format: Online

Student Learning Outcomes

  1. Students will gain a broad understanding of the history of the Ryukyu Islands and people.

  2. Students will demonstrate clear writing and analysis ability at the undergraduate level.

  3. Students will demonstrate the ability to make brief video lectures about Ryukyu subjects.

  4. Students will be able to describe U.S. military issues in the Ryukyu Islands.

Module One: Ryukyu Prehistory

Covers Ryukyu prehistory, including the first known human settlements in the Ryukyu Islands. Discusses early Ryukyu relations with China starting around the second century B.C. Analyzes portions of the Omoro Sooshi to gain understanding of life in prehistoric Ryukyu as well as learn about Ryukyu spirituality. Covers Ryukyu trade with Pacific Islands, and the introduction of rice and the sweet potato.

Readings:

  • Kajiwara, Robert. An Overview of Ryukyu History. Honolulu: Kaji Books. 2020. Chapter 1: Prehistory.

  • Omoro Sooshi (primary source). English Translation done by Robert Kajiwara.

Assignments:

  • Video Blog 1:

    • Students will create a video introducing themselves to the class. Please include the following information:

      • Your name that you are registered in the school under.

      • Your preferred name if different from your registered name.

      • Your academic background.

      • Your future academic or career plans.

      • Any background you might have in Ryukyu studies.

      • Your hobbies

      • Anything else you would like to share with the class

  • Discussion Board 1: Describe some elements of prehistoric Ryukyu society.

Module Two: The Gusuku Period & Early Relations with China

Focuses on the first gusuku (castles) starting around the ninth century. Briefly studies the failed Mongol invasions of Ryukyu. Focuses heavily on the Three Kingdoms period of the 13th century, along with the start of formal political relations with China. Also covers the first Chinese settlement in Ryukyu and the introduction of Chinese cultural and political elements. Students will briefly examine Ryukyu historiography and the differences in sources and viewpoints (Ryukyuan, American, Japanese).

Readings:

  • Kajiwara, Robert. An Overview of Ryukyu History. Honolulu: Kaji Books. 2020. Chapters 2-4.

  • Pearson, Richard J. Archeology of the Ryukyu Islands. University of Hawaii Press. 1969.

Discussion Questions:

  1. Describe the gusuku. When did they first start to appear? Describe their appearance and how they were built. What roles did they have in Ryukyu society?

  2. Why did Ryukyuans first seek formal political relations with China? What were the advantages or disadvantages of the Ryukyu-China relationship for both sides?

  3. What are some of the similarities or differences between Ryukyu, Japanese, and American sources?

Assignments:

  • Video Blog 2: Answer one of the three Discussion Questions.

  • Discussion Board 2: Answer one of the other Discussion Questions (different from the question you answered in Video Blog 2).

  • Begin assembling your final paper based on your notes from this course so far.

Module Three: The First Ryukyu Golden Age

Covers Sho Hashi and the unification of Ryukyu under the Ryukyu Kingdom. Hashi introduced iron tools to Ryukyu, transforming Ryukyu’s socio-economic scene, and ushering in the First Ryukyu Golden Age. Examines Ryukyu trade, particularly with Southeast Asia. Covers the banning of weapons and the development of karate.

Readings:

  • Kajiwara, Robert. An Overview of Ryukyu History. Honolulu: Kaji Books. 2020. Chapters 5-6.

  • Kerr, George. Okinawa: History of an Island People. Tuttle Publishing: 1958. Chapter 5.

Discussion Questions

  1. Describe some of the achievements of Sho Hashi.

  2. What elements led to the start of the First Ryukyu Golden Age?

  3. What are some of the differences in perspectives between Kajiwara and Kerr?

Assignments:

  • Video Blog 3: Answer one of the three Discussion Questions.

  • Discussion Board 3: Answer one of the other Discussion Questions (different from the question you answered in Video Blog 3).

  • Submit a Draft #1 of your Historical Overview paper.

Module Four: The Satsuma Invasion and Ryukyu in the 17th century

The decline of the First Sho Dynasty and the start of the Second. Examines the events occurring in Japan that led to the Satsuma Invasion of 1609. Also examines events in Ming Dynasty China that prevented the Ming from coming to Ryukyu’s aid. Examines the aftermath of the Satsuma Invasion on Ryukyu.

Readings:

  • Kajiwara, Robert. An Overview of Ryukyu History. Honolulu: Kaji Books. 2020. Chapters 7-9.

  • Kerr, George. Okinawa: History of an Island People. Tuttle Publishing: 1958. Chapter 7.

Discussion Questions:

  1. What brought about the decline of the First Sho Dynasty?

  2. What were the reasons for the Satsuma Invasion of 1609?

  3. What was the aftermath of the Satsuma Invasion on Ryukyu?

Assignments:

  • Video Blog 4: Answer one of the three Discussion Questions.

  • Discussion Board 4: Answer one of the other Discussion Questions (different from the question you answered in Video Blog 3).

Module Five: The Second Ryukyu Golden Age

Examines the Second Ryukyu Golden Age, the successes of the Second Sho Dynasty, and the further developments of Ryukyu politics, economics, and society. Examines increased cultural developments paving the way for modern Ryukyu culture. Examines relations with Qing Dynasty China, as well as the forced tributary relations with Japan, and how Ryukyu further Sinified in order to survive.

Readings:

  • Kajiwara, Robert. An Overview of Ryukyu History. Honolulu: Kaji Books. 2020. Chapters 10-11.

  • Kerr, George. Okinawa: History of an Island People. Tuttle Publishing: 1958. Chapter 9.

Discussion Questions:

  1. Describe the impact on Ryukyu of its relationship with Japan.

  2. What paved the way for the Second Ryukyu Golden Age?

  3. Describe the elements of the Second Ryukyu Golden Age.

Assignments:

  • Video Blog 5: Answer one of the three Discussion Questions.

  • Discussion Board 5: Answer one of the other Discussion Questions (different from the question you answered in Video Blog 5).

  • Draft #2 Historical Overview paper.

Module Six: Japan Annexation & the Ryukyu Diaspora

Examines the forced annexation of Ryukyu by Imperial Japan starting in 1872 and culminating in 1879. Covers the impact annexation had on Ryukyu society as well as Japanese prejudice against Ryukyuans. Examines the start of the Ryukyu diaspora in the late-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, in which thousands of Ryukyuans migrated overseas to Hawaii, the United States, China, South America, and elsewhere.

Readings:

  • Kajiwara, Robert. An Overview of Ryukyu History. Honolulu: Kaji Books. 2020. Chapters 12-13.

  • Kerr, George. Okinawa: History of an Island People. Tuttle Publishing: 1958. Chapter 11.

Discussion Questions:

  1. Describe the reasons for the start of the Ryukyu diaspora.

  2. What elements paved the way for Japan’s illegal annexation of Ryukyu?

  3. What was the impact of Japan’s annexation on Ryukyu?

Assignments:

  • Video Blog 6: Answer one of the three Discussion Questions.

  • Discussion Board 6: Answer one of the other Discussion Questions (different from the question you answered in Video Blog 6).

Module Seven: World War II and the Battle of Okinawa

Briefly covers Japan’s annexation of other Asian countries, such as China, Korea, the Philippines, and Vietnam, and compares these to the annexation of Ryukyu. Covers Japan’s military build up on Okinawa Island, which paved the way for the tragic Battle of Okinawa. Examines Japanese genocide against Okinawans.

Readings:

  • Higa, Tomiko. The Girl with the White Flag. Kodansha International. 2013.

  • Kajiwara, Robert. An Overview of Ryukyu History. Honolulu: Kaji Books. 2020. Chapter 14.

Discussion Questions:

  1. What actions by the Japan military and government led to the Battle of Okinawa?

  2. How did Japan’s treatment of Ryukyu compare with its treatment of other countries it occupied?

  3. Describe the impact of the Battle of Okinawa on the Okinawan people.

Assignments:

  • Video Blog 7: Answer one of the three Discussion Questions.

  • Discussion Board 7: Answer one of the other Discussion Questions (different from the question you answered in Video Blog 7).

  • Final Paper Rough Draft.

Module Eight: Modern Ryukyu

Covers the immediate post-war rebuilding period, as well as further Okinawan migrations to South America. Examines the effects of tourism and the military in Ryukyu. Examines efforts by Ryukyu to regain its independence and retain their Ryukyu identity, both in Ryukyu and overseas.

Readings:

  • Kajiwara, Robert. Re-examining Okinawa’s Role in Asia-Pacific Security. Honolulu: Kaji Books. 2019.

  • Kajiwara, Robert. Occupied Okinawa: The United States of America and Japan’s Desecration of Okinawa’s Democracy and Environment. Honolulu: Kaji Books. 2019.

  • Okinawa Prefecture Government. What Okinawa Wants You to Understand About the U.S. Military Bases. 2018.

Discussion Questions:

  1. Describe the impact of the military presence on Okinawa.

  2. Describe the modern Ryukyu diaspora.

  3. Describe modern efforts to restore Ryukyu history, culture, language, and independence.

Assignments:

  • Video Blog 8: Answer one of the three Discussion Questions.

  • Discussion Board 8: Answer one of the other Discussion Questions (different from the question you answered in Video Blog 8).

  • Final Paper.

Assignment Points

Discussion Boards: 8 Discussion Boards, worth 20 points each. Total = 160 points

Video Lectures: 240 points

Draft #1 of Historical Overview: 100 points

Draft #2 of Historical Overview: 100 points

Final Paper Rough Draft: 100 points

Final Paper: 300 points

951-1000 = A

901-950 = A-

851-900 = B

801-850 = B-

751-800 = C

701-750 = C-

651-700 = D

601-650 = D-

1-600 = F

Students should be able to dedicate around 12 hours per week to this course. Actual time may vary based on the needs of individual students.

Assignment Instructions

Discussion Boards: All discussion board posts must be between 350-500 words. Students should respond to three discussion board posts from other students. Discussion board responses should be between 100-200 words long. Students should also respond to at least one comment received from another student on their own original post. Posts that fall short or go over the word limit will have points deducted.

Video Blogs: All video blogs should be between 3:30-5:00 in length. Videos that go over or under the required time limit will be penalized.

Draft #1 Historical Overview: This should be a 2-3 page paper, double-spaced, of your notes and writings from the course so far. Cite sources in Chicago style. The writing should be in your own words. If quoting directly from another author, be sure to assign proper credit.

Draft #2 Historical Overview: This should be a 4-6 page paper, double-spaced, of your notes and writings from the course so far. This paper should expand upon your previous Draft #1. Cite sources in Chicago style. The writing should be in your own words. If quoting directly from another author, be sure to assign proper credit.

Final Paper Rough Draft: This should be an 8-10 page paper, double-spaced, of your notes and writings from the course so far. This rough draft should expand upon both Draft #1 and Draft #2. Cite sources in Chicago style. The writing should be in your own words. If quoting directly from another author, be sure to assign proper credit.

Final Paper: This should be a 10-12 page paper, double spaced, of your notes and writings from the course so far. This paper should be a culmination and expansion of Draft #1, Draft #2, and your Final Paper Rough Draft. Cite sources in Chicago style. The writing should be in your own words. If quoting directly from another author, be sure to assign proper credit. This paper should demonstrate your general knowledge of Ryukyu history and your ability to explain a basic overview of Ryukyu history using academic writing and sources.

Required Reading

Higa, Tomiko. The Girl with the White Flag. Kodansha International. 2013.

Kajiwara, Robert. An Overview of Ryukyu History. Honolulu: Kaji Books. 2020.

Kajiwara, Robert. Re-examining Okinawa’s Role in Asia-Pacific Security. Honolulu: Kaji Books. 2019.

Kajiwara, Robert. Occupied Okinawa: The United States of America and Japan’s Desecration of Okinawa’s Democracy and Environment. Honolulu: Kaji Books. 2019.

Kerr, George. Okinawa: History of an Island People. Tuttle Publishing: 1958.

Okinawa Prefecture Government. What Okinawa Wants You to Understand About the U.S. Military Bases. 2018.

Pearson, Richard J. Archeology of the Ryukyu Islands. University of Hawaii Press. 1969.

Racism within academia

My recent experiences with racism within academia has significantly grown my appreciation for Dr. Haunani-Kay Trask, the legendary Hawaiian professor at the University of Hawaii who did so much to advance Hawaiian rights, as well as the rights of indigenous peoples all over the world, such as Native Americans and Ryukyu / Okinawans. Trask particularly had a huge impact on improving the rights of indigenous peoples within academia. Of course, she was attacked mercilessly by many critics at the time who called her “extreme.” Actually though, looking back on the things she said, they no longer seem particularly extreme, but seem rather normal or even mild compared to some of the rhetoric we hear today. This is in large part due to the efforts of Dr. Trask, who laid the foundation for other indigenous scholars to build off of.

Here’s a video of Dr. Trask giving a speech at the University of Hawaii regarding racism within academia. It’s around three decades old, and I was just a very small keiki at the time. But it provides a glimpse of the incredible amount of racism and prejudice that Dr. Trask had to go through at the University of Hawaii.

Today the University of Hawaii is still far from perfect, as the recent controversy surrounding Mauna Kea and the Thirty Meter Telescope suggests. But it has come an awful long way in the last several decades, thanks to Dr. Trask and others who worked so hard for so long.

 

National Education Association publishes articles about Hawaiian Kingdom, independence

Three fascinating articles written by Dr. Keanu Sai and published by the National Education Association talking about the Hawaiian Kingdom and Hawaii’s independence:

 

The Impact of the U.S. Occupation on the Hawaiian People

 

The U.S. Occupation of the Hawaiian Kingdom

 

The Illegal Overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom Government

Oscar Gil, PhD Student, calls U.S. take over of Hawaiians, Native Americans, “blessing beyond imagination”

Oscar Gil, a Ph.D. in History student at Liberty University, has attempted to discredit Hawaiian independence studies in a class discussion board post on November 8, 2019 in which he used the terms “nonsense” and “sedition” to describe Hawaiian independence issues. He also stated that “the United States has given rights, protection, and a blessing beyond imagination not only to those ingenious peoples there but also to the rest of the United States that the rest of the world can only dream about.”

The comments came in response to this video discussing Hawaiian Studies:

 

 

 

Gil’s full comments can be found in the screenshot below:

Screen Shot 2019-11-08 at 10.50.48 PM
Discussion board post written by Oscar Gil, Ph.D. in History student at Liberty University, in response to a video by Rob Kajiwara.

Gil’s comments are problematic and inaccurate for numerous reasons which are immediately obvious to almost anyone familiar with Hawaiian issues. I will briefly explain only a few of them here.

Gil, who is neither Hawaiian nor Native American, attempts to speak on behalf of Hawaiians and Native Americans by calling their take over by the United States as a “blessing beyond imagination,” a statement which the majority of Hawaiians and Native Americans would find deeply offensive. It is well-known that the United States committed genocide against millions of Native Americans. What is less well-known are the numerous human rights violations against Hawaiians. Hawaiians have been working since 1893 to regain their de facto independence.

Gil contradicts the claims of the two scholars mentioned in the video, Dr. Keanu Sai and Dr. Noelani Goodyear-Kaʻopu, both of whom teach in the University of Hawaii system and have been cited and published in peer-reviewed articles and books. Gil himself, though, cites no sources to back up any of his claims.

The issue of Hawaii’s independence is not based on indigenous rights, but on international laws pertaining to sovereignty. This is explained in detail in works by Dr. Keanu Sai, H.E. Leon Siu, and numerous others. Please see Basis for the Restoration of the Hawaiian Kingdom for more information.

Copy and pasted from www.HawaiianKingdom.net:

“…secession is illegal under United States law. Hawaii does not need to secede from the U.S., since it was never legally part of the U.S. to begin with. Rather, the U.S. needs to de-occupy the Hawaiian Islands, which it has been illegally occupying with no treaty of annexation since 1898.

“Hawaii’s situation is unique, meaning that the states of the United States cannot use Hawaii’s independence as a model for secession. Out of the 49 States of America, only Alaska can make a similar (though slightly different) claim of never having been legally acquired by the U.S. “

Gil’s perpetuating of false information is harmful. Ph.D. students should be held to a much higher standard for accuracy, as they are influential members of society. For a Ph.D. in History student to use such flawed arguments that are detrimental to oppressed and marginalized people groups is of great concern.

Online Course Assessment: Harvard University

Online Course Assessment:

Harvard University

By Robert Hernandez Kajiwara

Done in partial fulfillment of the Ph.D. in History degree at Liberty University

The idea of an online course might be intimidating for many who are accustomed to the traditional classroom setting. For others, particularly millennials, online courses might be much more tolerable, or even preferable. Unfortunately the quality of online courses can very tremendously depending on the institution, and even within institutions themselves. With more and more students taking online classes full-time, part-time, and in hybrid courses, online courses in academia are here to stay. Thus, teachers and administrators should seriously study online education, and examining online offerings from top universities can provide intriguing insight.

I have personally taken several online courses through Harvard edX. In 2012 Harvard partnered with MIT to found edX, a Massive Online Open Enrollment (MOOE) platform. Through edX Harvard offers a variety of different courses in many fields of study, providing quality education from a highly prestigious university in an online format. MOOE’s tend to be very popular due to their public accessibility, as well as due to their free or low-cost.

One of the primary drawbacks about MOOE’s, however, is that they have a very high drop-out rate. Harvard has attempted to remedy this by offering a paid version of classes, requiring a one-time fee in exchange for permanent access to the entirety of the course content, as well as access to the course’s graded assessments. By doing this, students who are serious about completing the course have more incentive and accessibility to do so, while students who might just be casually browsing courses still have access to the majority of the content, such as the videos and readings.

As expected, the quality of Harvard’s MOOE offerings is quite high, and is actually better than many of the for-credit online course programs offered by other colleges and universities. Dr. Peter K. Bol, the Carswell Professor of East Asian Languages and Civilization, and Vice Provost for Advances in Learning, stated that the edX platform offers more content than Harvard’s in-class counterpart (though it should be noted that more content does not necessarily correlate to quality of learning). They offer a variety of different literature, both primary and secondary sources, for study, as well as professionally made video lectures. The curriculum are well-designed and demonstrate clear and thoughtful planning on the part of the faculty.

Harvard also makes good use of technology in this online format. For video lectures, Harvard transcribes the lecture in a sidebar that plays automatically in synchronicity with the video. This is extremely helpful to students who may be hearing-impaired or who may prefer reading.

The primary benefits of Harvard’s MOOE courses are ease of access, public availability, and free or low-cost tuition. Harvard has successfully worked to reduce some of the most prominent negative issues with the MOOE format. However, the last remaining significant problem in my opinion is that there is no degree offering in this form. Optional certificates, for a fee, are nice, but do not hold nearly the same weight or education as a full degree program.

In addition to edX, Harvard offers a variety of certificates, bachelors, and masters degrees in their extension school that can be completed mostly, but not entirely, online. Harvard requires at least three on-campus visits prior to completion of the degree, and offers select courses, such as weekend intensives, that meet the on-campus requirement. The degrees carry the full weight and prestige of any other Harvard degree. As such, the tuition for these degrees is quite higher than for the edX courses. The academic requirements are also much more rigorous, as is to be expected.

Overall Harvard offers a variety of high-quality online courses in both the MOOE and the Extension School format. For degrees they have declined to offer anything that can be done entirely online, but their hybrid format and careful planning still makes it easy and accessible for a committed scholar to complete from anywhere in the world. Harvard is generally considered to be one of the most prestigious universities in the world, and their online offerings live up to that title. Any teacher or administrator involved in online education would do well to study Harvard’s methods.